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洞窥人性的一面镜子——读李国文《中国人的教训》 - 北京大学出版社





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洞窥人性的一面镜子——读李国文《中国人的教训》
2016-05-31 09:13:53
来源:《大公报》
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    古人曰:“人非圣贤,孰能无过。”我们也常说,人无完人。读史其实就是读人,读人就无法回避对一个人的是非对错加以评判。略显不同的是,评判者中有的是站在历史潮流角度,有的则是站在人生际遇方面。李国文的中国人的教训》,倾向于后一视角的阐释,所以文字尽可能剥离勾心斗角的权力机锋,同时多了一分人间的冷暖,倍显质朴与亲切。

  本书中,李国文从先秦时代着笔,按照历史时间顺序,解读了几乎各个朝代的数十位典型人物。这些人中既有位极权力顶峰的汉高祖刘邦、唐代女皇武则天,也有影响了一个时代的重臣秦朝丞相李斯、被神化的三国军事家诸葛亮;既有儒学“鼻祖”孔子、战国时代的大诗人屈原,也有三国“竹林七贤”中的嵇康和阮籍、唐代大诗人李白……总之形形色色。李国文以这些人物的生存状况、人生态度、命运遭际、成败得失为依托,突出了他们人生的一波三折、起落跌宕、苦心经营、艰难成功,目的在于让读者在借鉴古代中国人生存智慧的同时,更多地感悟今天每个人的活法。

  帝王将相向来是读者关注的话题。齐桓公先是重用管仲,所以齐国走向富强。后来却在易牙、竖刀和公子开方三位擅长阿谀之徒的赞歌声中含恨而死,齐国由此转衰。极力辅佐刘备的诸葛亮,终究无法超越主子的昏庸,这是他无法成功的根本所在。在各种古装剧中,武则天一角被赋予太多的内涵。武则天的手段确实毒辣,同时她对御用文人的有效掌控,这是她控制社会舆论的重要手段。

  说起御用文人,李国文认为,屈原的最大“过错”或在于,“他得到文人的自由时,常常忘却他作为臣僕的不自由”。这一点诗人李白的遭遇倒有些异曲同工。李白两度入宫,其目的不过为了向权力靠拢,得到权力的赏识,为此,他还写过不少颇为肉麻的诗篇。“建安文学”现象的出现,与“曹操削平袁绍,北征乌桓,统一中原”有关,同时曾吟出“何以解忧,唯有杜康”的曹操本人也是有一定造诣的文学爱好者。而“竹林七贤”中的嵇康和阮籍,前者后来做到“口不臧否人物”的地步,而后者依然“骄视当朝执政”,结果被诬陷处死。

  在所述的这些人中,李后主李煜更像是权力与文人的综合体。一方面他是南唐最后一位国君,另一方面他精书法、工绘画、通音律,写下“问君能有几多愁,恰似一江春水向东流”等诸多至今为人传唱的佳作。如果“不玩政治、不握权杖、不做皇帝”,他也许可以多活几年,但如此一来,他又未必写得出这些佳作诗句来。世界上的许多文学,往往是曲折悲情的“婴儿”,李煜的诗作亦不能例外。

  我们常说,历史没有假如,这是基于过去的事实。为了给后人以借鉴,我们又常常手握充分的历史背景材料,去为历史人物把脉。所以我们常如此设想,假如齐桓公对管仲的信任一如既往,假如诸葛亮能够更大限度施展才能,假如武则天不似那般毒辣而是“母仪天下”……不过有的也让人觉得无法假如,比如李白,我们到底是该假如他拽住了权力的脐带,还是该假如他弃权力于不顾,像陶渊明那样“採菊东篱下,悠然见南山”呢?还有我们应看到,“竹林七贤”中的嵇康和阮籍命运的分野,从个人角度看嵇康更好地保存了自己,但从风骨角度看阮籍则更令人尊敬,毕竟,文人的风骨太过稀缺。

  一部中国史,其实也是一部中国历代人性的发展史。读到李国文的《中国人的教训》时,脑海里很容易同柏杨的《丑陋的中国人》联系在一起。今天的文化,正是历朝历代各种事件“化学反应”的结晶。当我们怀念春秋战国时代百家争鸣的盛景时,我们不得不反思,到底仅仅是独尊儒术的个人力量,还是有更深的文化短板阉割了那个原本思想爆炸的时代呢?

历史当然是一面镜子。无论上至集权力资源于一身的帝王将相,还是下至肩挑手提日出而作、日落而息的平民百姓,每个人的心路历程都是后人的镜鉴。从这层意义上讲,《中国人的教训》不只是歷史名人的教训,同时也是我们每个人洞窥人性的一面镜子。

 
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 lhylili 发表于 2016-12-29 23:06:25:

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We got this for my father in law for Christmas. It appears to be a tough little watch - very simple to use and looks great on him!

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 匿名用户 发表于 2016-11-10 19:47:04:

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